Nikolai WyderkaPhD student
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Andreas Ketterer, Nikolai Wyderka and Otfried Gühne
Moments of random correlations and the characterization of multipartite entanglement
We present in detail a statistical approach for the reference-frame-independent detection and characterization of multipartite entanglement based on moments of randomly measured correlation functions. We start by discussing how the corresponding moments can be evaluated with designs, linking methods from group and entanglement theory. Then, we illustrate the strengths of the presented framework with a focus on the multipartite scenario. We discuss a condition for characterizing genuine multipartite entanglement for three qubits, and we prove a criterion that allows for a discrimination of $W$-type entanglement for an arbitrary number of qubits.
Nikolai Wyderka and Otfried Gühne
Characterizing quantum states via sector lengths
Correlations in multiparticle systems are constrained by restrictions from quantum mechanics. A prominent example for these restrictions are monogamy relations, limiting the amount of entanglement between pairs of particles in a three-particle system. A powerful tool to study correlation constraints is the notion of sector lengths. These quantify, for different $k$, the amount of $k$-partite correlations in a quantum state in a basis-independent manner. We derive tight bounds on the sector lengths in multi-qubit states and highlight applications of these bounds to entanglement detection, monogamy relations and the $n$-representability problem. For the case of two- and three qubits we characterize the possible sector lengths completely and prove a symmetrized version of strong subadditivity for the linear entropy.
In the usual entanglement detection scenario the possible measurements and the corresponding data are assumed to be fully characterized. We consider the situation where the measurements are known, but the data is scrambled, meaning the assignment of the probabilities to the measurement outcomes is unknown. We investigate in detail the two-qubit scenario with local measurements in two mutually unbiased bases. First, we discuss the use of entropies to detect entanglement from scrambled data, showing that Tsallis- and R\'enyi entropies can detect entanglement in our scenario, while the Shannon entropy cannot. Then, we introduce and discuss scrambling-invariant families of entanglement witnesses. Finally, we show that the set of non-detectable states in our scenario is non-convex and therefore in general hard to characterize.
Quantum memories are an important building block for quantum information processing. Ideally, these memories preserve the quantum properties of the input. We present general criteria for measures to evaluate the quality of quantum memories. Then, we introduce a quality measure based on coherence satisfying these criteria, which we characterize in detail for the qubit case. The measure can be estimated from sparse experimental data and may be generalized to characterize other building blocks, such as quantum gates and teleportation schemes.
The experimental detection of multipartite entanglement usually requires a number of appropriately chosen local quantum measurements which are aligned with respect to a previously shared common reference frame. The latter, however, can be a challenging prerequisite e.g. for satellite-based photonic quantum communication, making the development of alternative detection strategies desirable. One possibility for avoiding the distribution of classical reference frames is to perform a number of local measurements with settings distributed uniformly at random. In this work we follow such a treatment and show that an improved detection and characterization of multipartite entanglement is possible by combining statistical moments of different order. To do so, we make use of designs which are pseudo-random processes allowing to link the present entanglement criteria to ordinary reference frame independent ones. The strengths of our methods are illustrated in various cases starting with two qubits and followed by more involved multipartite scenarios.
An entanglement witness is an observable with the property that a negative expectation value signals the presence of entanglement. The question arises how a witness can be improved if the expectation value of a second observable is known, and methods for doing this have recently been discussed as so-called ultrafine entanglement witnesses. We present several results on the characterization of entanglement given the expectation values of two observables. First, we explain that this problem can naturally be tackled with the method of the Legendre transformation, leading even to a quantification of entanglement. Second, we present necessary and sufficient conditions that two product observables are able to detect entanglement. Finally, we explain some fallacies in the original construction of ultrafine entanglement witnesses [F. Shahandeh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 110502 (2017)].
The set of correlations between particles in multipartite quantum systems is larger than those in classical systems. Nevertheless, it is subject to restrictions by the underlying quantum theory. In order to better understand the structure of this set, a possible strategy is to divide all correlations into two components, depending on the question of whether they involve an odd or an even number of particles. For pure multi-qubit states we prove that these two components are inextricably interwoven and often one type of correlations completely determines the other. As an application, we prove that all pure qubit states with an odd number of qubits are uniquely determined among all mixed states by the odd component of the correlations. In addition, our approach leads to invariants under the time evolution with Hamiltonians containing only odd correlations and can simplify entanglement detection.
We show that generic pure states (states drawn according to the Haar measure) of four particles of equal internal dimension are uniquely determined among all other pure states by their two-body marginals. In fact, certain subsets of three of the two-body marginals suffice for the characterization. We also discuss generalizations of the statement to pure states of more particles, showing that these are almost always determined among pure states by three of their $(n-2)$-body marginals. Finally, we present special families of symmetric pure four-particle states that share the same two-body marginals and are therefore undetermined. These are four-qubit Dicke states in superposition with generalized GHZ states.