Nikolai MiklinPhD student
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Frank E.S. Steinhoff, Christina Ritz, Nikolai Miklin, Otfried Gühne
Qudit hypergraph states
We generalize the class of hypergraph states to multipartite systems of qudits, by means of constructions based on the d-dimensional Pauli group and its normalizer. For simple hypergraphs, the different equivalence classes under local operations are shown to be governed by a greatest common divisor hierarchy. Moreover, the special cases of three qutrits and three ququarts is analysed in detail.
Marius Paraschiv, Nikolai Miklin, Tobias Moroder and Otfried Gühne
Proving genuine multiparticle entanglement from separable nearest-neighbor marginals
We address the question of whether or not global entanglement of a quantum state can be inferred from local properties. Specifically, we are interested in genuinely multiparticle entangled states whose two-body marginals are all separable, but where the entanglement can be proven using knowledge of a subset of the marginals only. Using an iteration of semidefinite programs, we discuss in detail all possible marginal configurations up to six particles and decide which configurations are sufficient. We then present a method to construct states with the same properties for larger systems.
We investigate the possibility of distinguishing among different causal relations starting from a limited set of marginals. Our main tool is the notion of adhesivity, that is, the extension of probability or entropies defined only on subsets of variables, which provides additional independence constraints among them. Our results provide a criterion for recognizing which causal structures are indistinguishable when only limited marginal information is accessible. Furthermore, the existence of such extensions greatly simplifies the characterization of a marginal scenario, a result that facilitates the derivation of Bell inequalities both in the probabilistic and entropic frameworks, and the identification of marginal scenarios where classical, quantum, and postquantum probabilities coincide.
The question whether global entanglement of a multiparticle quantum system can be inferred from local properties is of great relevance for the theory of quantum correlations as well as for experimental implementations. We present a method to systematically find quantum states, for which the two- or three-body marginals do not contain any entanglement; nevertheless, the knowledge of these reduced states is sufficient to prove genuine multiparticle entanglement of the global state. With this we show that the emergence of global entanglement from separable local quantum states occurs frequently and for an arbitrary number of particles. We discuss various extensions of the phenomenon and present examples where global entanglement can be proven from marginals, even if entanglement cannot be localized in the marginals with measurements on the other parties.
We consider polarization states of three photons, propagating collinearly and having equal given frequencies but with arbitrary distributed horizontal or vertical polarizations of photons. A general form of such states is a superposition of four basic three-photon polarization modes, to be referred to as the three-photon polarization ququarts (TPPQ). All such states can be considered as consisting of one- and two-photon parts, which can be entangled with each other. The degrees of entanglement and polarization, as well as the Schmidt decomposition and Stokes vectors of TPPQ are found and discussed.
Mikhail V. Fedorov and Nikolai Miklin
Schmidt modes and entanglement
Contemporary Physics 55 (2), 94-109 (2014)
Motivated by their frequent use in quantum mechanical studies of entanglement, we give a brief overview of Schmidt modes and Schmidt decompositions of two-particle wave functions. We discuss methods of their derivation and include a little-known approach used in the original work by E. Schmidt [Math. Annalen, 63 (1906), 433]. This employs the bipartite wave function itself rather than the more complicated two-party reduced density matrix. As an illustration, Schmidt modes for two-photon polarisation qutrits are derived in a general form. The derivation is accompanied by a series of simple examples with special choices of parameters. Relationships between Schmidt modes, polarisation Stokes vectors and entanglement are also discussed.
Polarization features and entanglement of biphoton polarization qutrits are briefly outlined. Schmidt modes of qutrits are found analytically and in a general form by the method different from the standard one and based on the original approach of Erhard Schmidt (1906).