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Andreas Ketterer, Nikolai Wyderka and Otfried Gühne
Characterizing multipartite entanglement with moments of random correlations
The trustworthy detection of multipartite entanglement usually requires a number of judiciously chosen local quantum measurements which are aligned with respect to a previously shared common reference frame. If such a reference frame is not available, one has to develop alternative detection strategies which do not rely on a specific choice of the local measurement bases. One possibility in this direction is to perform a number of local measurements with settings distributed uniformly at random. In this work we follow such a treatment and show that an improved characterization of multipartite entanglement is possible by combining statistical moments of different order. To do so, we make use of unitary designs which link entanglement criteria that are based on moments to reference frame independent ones. The strengths of our methods are illustrated in various cases starting with two qubits and followed by more involved multipartite scenarios.
Andreas Ketterer, Adrien Laversanne-Finot and Leandro Aolita
Continuous-variable supra-quantum nonlocality
Supra-quantum nonlocality refers to correlations that are more nonlocal than allowed by quantum theory but still physically conceivable in post-quantum theories, in the sense of respecting the basic no-faster-than-light communication principle. While supra-quantum correlations are relatively well understood for finite-dimensional systems, little is known in the infinite-dimensional case. Here, we study supra-quantum nonlocality for bipartite systems with two measurement settings and infinitely many outcomes per subsystem. We develop a formalism for generic no-signaling black-box measurement devices with continuous outputs in terms of probability measures, instead of probability distributions, which involves a few technical subtleties. We show the existence of a class of supra-quantum Gaussian correlations, which violate the Tsirelson bound of an adequate continuous-variable Bell inequality. We then introduce the continuous-variable version of the celebrated Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes, as a limiting case of the above-mentioned Gaussian ones. Finally, we perform a characterisation of the geometry of the set of continuous-variable no-signaling correlations. Namely, we show that that the convex hull of the continuous-variable PR boxes is dense in the no-signaling set. We also show that these boxes are extreme in the set of no-signaling behaviours and provide evidence suggesting that they are indeed the only extreme points of the no-signaling set. Our results lay the grounds for studying generalized-probability theories in continuous-variable systems.
T. Douce, A. Ketterer, A. Keller, T. Coudreau and P. Milman
Quantum search with non--orthogonal entangled states
We propose a classical to quantum information encoding system using non--orthogonal states and apply it to the problem of searching an element in a quantum list. We show that the proposed encoding scheme leads to an exponential gain in terms of quantum resources and, in some cases, to an exponential gain in the number of runs of the protocol. In the case where the output of the search algorithm is a quantum state with some particular physical property, the searched state is found with a single query to the introduced oracle. If the obtained quantum state must be converted back to classical information, our protocol demands a number of repetitions that scales polynomially with the number of qubits required to encode a classical string.
A. Ketterer, S. P. Walborn, A. Keller, T. Coudreau and P. Milman
Quantum information with modular variables
We introduce a novel strategy, based on the use of modular variables, to encode and deterministically process quantum information using states described by continuous variables. Our formalism leads to a general recipe to adapt existing quantum information protocols, originally formulated for finite dimensional quantum systems, to infinite dimensional systems described by continuous variables. This is achieved by using non unitary and non-gaussian operators, obtained from the superposition of gaussian gates, together with adaptative manipulations in qubit systems defined in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. We describe in details the realization of single and two qubit gates and briefly discuss their implementation in a quantum optical set-up.
The Talbot effect in quantum physics is known to produce intricate patterns in the probability distribution of a particle, known as “quantum carpets,” corresponding to the revival and replication of the initial wave function. Recently, it was shown that one can encode a D-level qudit in such a way that the Talbot effect can be used to process the D-dimensional quantum information [Farías et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 062328 (2015)]. Here we introduce a scheme to produce free-propagating “entangled quantum carpets” with pairs of photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. First we introduce an optical device that can be used to synthesize arbitrary superposition states of Talbot qudits. Sending spatially entangled photon pairs through a pair of these devices produces an entangled pair of qudits. As an application, we show how the Talbot effect can be used to test a D-dimensional Bell inequality. Numerical simulations show that violation of the Bell inequality depends strongly on the amount of spatial correlation in the initial two-photon state. We briefly discuss how our optical scheme might be adapted to matter wave experiments.
A. Laversanne-Finot, A. Ketterer, M. R. Barros, S. P. Walborn, T. Coudreau, A. Keller and P. Milman
General conditions for maximal violation of non-contextuality in discrete and continuous variables
J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50 , 155304 ( 2017 ), arXiv:1512.03334
The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. An important property of such observables is that their expectation value can be expressed in terms of probabilities for obtaining two exclusive outcomes. Examples of such inequalities have been constructed using either observables with a dichotomic spectrum or using periodic functions obtained from displacement operators in phase space. Here we identify the general conditions on the spectral decomposition of observables demonstrating state independent contextuality of quantum mechanics. Our results not only unify existing strategies for maximal violation of state independent non-contextuality inequalities but also lead to new scenarios enabling such violations. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a state independent maximal violation of non-contextuality in the Peres–Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions.
Binary quantum information can be fault tolerantly encoded in states defined in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Such states define a computational basis, and permit a perfect equivalence between continuous and discrete universal operations. The drawback of this encoding is that the corresponding logical states are unphysical, meaning infinitely localized in phase space. We use the modular variables formalism to show that, in a number of protocols relevant for quantum information and for the realization of fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, it is possible to loosen the requirements on the logical subspace without jeopardizing their usefulness or their successful implementation. Such protocols involve measurements of appropriately chosen modular observables that permit the readout of the encoded discrete quantum information from the corresponding logical states. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental feasibility of our approach by applying it to the transverse degrees of freedom of single photons.
The Clauser-Horne-Shimony and Holt inequality applies when measurements with binary outcomes are performed on physical systems under the assumption of local realism. Testing such inequalities in the quantum realm usually involves either measurements of two--valued quantum observables or pre-defining a context dependent binning procedure. Here we establish the conditions to test the Clauser-Horne-Shimony and Holt inequality using any quantum observable. Our result applies to observables with an arbitrary spectrum and no prior knowledge of their underlying Hilbert space's dimension is required. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed general measurement strategy, that can be seen as positive operator valued measurements performed on the system, using the formalism of modular variables applied to the transverse degrees of freedom of single photons.
We study the impact of double and triple scattering contributions on coherent backscattering of laser light from saturated isotropic atoms, in the helicity preserving polarization channel. Using the recently proposed diagrammatic pump-probe approach, we analytically derive single-atom spectral responses to a classical polychromatic driving field, combine them self-consistently to double and triple scattering processes, and numerically deduce the corresponding elastic and inelastic spectra, as well as the total backscattered intensities. We find that account of the triple scattering contribution leads to a faster decay of phase-coherence with increasing saturation of the atomic transition as compared to double scattering alone, and to a better agreement with the experiment on strontium atoms.
In quantum theory, observables with a continuous spectrum are known to be fundamentally different from those with a discrete and finite spectrum. While some fundamental tests and applications of quantum mechanics originally formulated for discrete variables have been translated to continuous ones, this is not the case in general. For instance, despite their importance, no experimental demonstration of nonlocality exists in the continuous variables regime. Attempts to bridge this gap and put continuous variables on a closer footing to discrete ones used dichotomization. However, this approach considers only discrete properties of the continuum, and its infinitesimal properties are not fully exploited. Here we show that it is possible to manipulate, detect and classify continuous variable states using observables with a continuous spectrum revealing properties and symmetries which are analogous to finite discrete systems. Our approach leads to an operational way to define and adapt, to arbitrary continuous quantum systems, quantum protocols and algorithms typical to discrete systems.